Name of Key Gums/Resins
|Sl. No||Name of the NTFP||Trade Name|
|1||Sterculia urens||Gum Karaya|
|2||Cochlospermum religiosum||Gum Kondagogu|
|3||Anogeisus latifolia||Gum Ghatti|
|4||Boswellia serrata||Gum Anduga/Salai Guggal|
Distribution in India
Gum Karaya, also known as Indian tragacanth is the dried exudate obtained from trees of Sterculia urens. Sterculia urens are usually found in tropical dry rocky hills and plateau. It is always noticeable from its smooth greenish-gray bark or white stem peeling off in large papery exfoliation, especially in the hot season, and the gaunt white stem with stiff spreading branches. The tree starts shedding its leaf in the cold season and the panicles of flowers appear from December to March at the end of leafless branches. Young leaves sprout in the hot season,
Sterculia urens is indigenous to India having a wide distribution It is abundantly found in the dry deciduous forests in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, which in earlier contributed about 50% of gum production in the country and the remaining came from Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Odisha, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
Gum Kondagogu species is thought to be native to Central and Southern India, globally distributed in Indo-Malesia. Within India, it occurs almost all over except western coastal districts. It is particularly common in hot, dry and stony regions. It is often cultivated in gardens and near temples
Gum exports are controlled largely by a large number of long-established merchants based in Mumbai. However, production has really come down over the last 10 years for instance, regarding Gum Karaya, during the period from 2013-14 to 2018-19, the production is almost 1/4th of the production from 2008-09 to 2012-13. In case of Kondagogu, the difference is more than half.
Within the State of Andhra Pradesh, the production is too low in Coastal area comparing to Rayalaseema region. If observed even more deeply, the production in Rampachodavaram Division in Coastal region and Srisailam Division in Rayalaseema region are comparatively giving considerable quantities of Gum among all the 7 available Divisions in the State of Andhra Pradesh.
Gums are mostly used as an ingredient in the preparation of emulsions, lotions, denture fixative powders, bulk laxatives, as a pulp binder in the preparation of thin papers and suspension properties. Currently, the gum is used in a variety of products including cosmetics, hair sprays and lotions to provide bulk. The tribal communities use Gum/s as a medicine in their daily life besides eating the fried seeds of Gum Karaya.
Gom Kondagogu is sweetish, cooling and sedative. It is used in the treatment of coughs and gonorrhoea. The dried leaves and flowers are stimulant. An oil is obtained from the seed. The source of an insoluble gum that can be used as a substitute for gum tragacanth. The oil cakes from the pressed seed can be eaten. The insoluble gum obtained from the plant can be used as a substitute for tragacanth when making ice cream. Stem bark paste is applied over the bone fractured areas by local people.
It is considered by the local communities that Gums and resins are becoming rare. Though they are now protecting these plants and propagating in their own lands, it takes some significantly more number of years due to their gestation period before they get the production but in the meantime, the trees which Gum was being harvested in unscientific method/s have died over these years
The Government of India has taken a decision to implement marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) w.e.f 2013-14 with an objective to ensure fair returns to the MFP gatherers by way of MSP for identified 12 MFPs collected by them including Gum Karaya.
By restricting the support of Minimum Support Price to Minor Forest Produce only to non-nationalized commodities of respective States, Andhra Pradesh was left of this scheme of MSP for MFP at that time.
In this connection later in the year 2015, based on the request made by GCC, the Tribal Welfare Department has issued orders to Girijan Cooperative Corporation Ltd., Andhra Pradesh for Denationalization of Five (5) Minor Forest Produce Commodities among which, Gum Karaya was one from the list of nationalized (Monopoly) Category of GCC.
Sterculia urens is a medium to large sized deciduous tree belonging to the family of Sterculiaceae, which grows wildly deciduous forests of dry rocky hills lands having tropical climate at elevations between 300 – 750 meters. Dry, tropical deciduous forests, often associated with Boswellia serrata, on hilltops, exposed ridges, rocky crevices, eroded slopes and similar habitats with several industrial application and up to 15 m height with 48 cm diameter (Kumar et al., 2013). Seed germination takes 10 – 15 days and gives nearly 100 % seedlings that reach 15 – 20 cm in height n three months.
Cochlospermum religiosum is a flowering plant from the tropical region of Southeast Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It is a small tree growing to a height of 7.5 m (25 ft) usually found in dry deciduous forests. The name religiosum derives from the fact that the flowers are used as temple offerings. It is also known as silk-cotton tree because the capsules containing the seeds have a fluffy cotton-like substance similar to kapok. Another common name is buttercup tree because its yellow and bright flowers look like large-sized buttercups. Propagation is through Seed and any branch, stuck in the ground in wet weather, will make roots and grow.